Document Actions

Portal - Radiative Heat Transfer 3rd ed



book cover 3rd ed

Radiative Heat Transfer

Third Edition

Michael F. Modest

University of California, Merced

 Academic Press

  New York    San Francisco    London

To the m&m's of my life, Monika, Mara, and Michelle

Errata Sheet for the 3rd edition

[Errata Sheet for the 2nd edition]



1  Fundamentals of Thermal Radiation


    1.1  Introduction


    1.2  The Nature of Thermal Radiation


    1.3  Basic Laws of Thermal Radiation


    1.4  Emissive Power


    1.5  Solid Angles


    1.6  Radiative Intensity


    1.7  Radiative Heat Flux


    1.8  Radiation Pressure


    1.9  Visible Radiation (Luminance)


    1.10  Radiative Intensity in Vacuum


    1.11  Introduction to Radiation Characteristics of Opaque Surfaces


    1.12  Introduction to Radiation Characteristics of Gases


    1.13  Introduction to Radiation Characteristics of Solids and Liquids


    1.14  Introduction to Radiation Characteristics of Particles


    1.15  The Radiative Transfer Equation


    1.16  Outline of Radiative Transport Theory



2  Radiative Property Predictions from Electromagnetic Wave Theory


    2.1  Introduction


    2.2  The Macroscopic Maxwell Equations


    2.3  Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Unbounded Media


    2.4  Polarization


    2.5  Reflection and Transmission


    2.6  Theories for Optical Constants



3  Radiative Properties of Real Surfaces


    3.1  Introduction


    3.2  Definitions


    3.3  Predictions from Electromagnetic Wave Theory


    3.4  Radiative Properties of Metals


    3.5  Radiative Properties of Nonconductors


    3.6  Effects of Surface Roughness


    3.7  Effects of Surface Damage and Oxide Films


    3.8  Radiative Properties of Semitransparent Sheets


    3.9  Special Surfaces


    3.10  Experimental Methods



4  View Factors


    4.1  Introduction


    4.2  Definition of View Factors


    4.3  Methods for the Evaluation of View Factors


    4.4  Area Integration


    4.5  Contour Integration


    4.6  View Factor Algebra


    4.7  The Crossed-Strings Method


    4.8  The Inside Sphere Method


    4.9  The Unit Sphere Method



5  Radiative Exchange Between Gray, Diffuse Surfaces


    5.1  Introduction


    5.2  Radiative Exchange Between Black Surfaces


    5.3  Radiative Exchange Between Gray, Diffuse Surfaces


    5.4  Electrical Network Analogy


    5.5  Radiation Shields


    5.6  Solution Methods for the Governing Integral Equations



6  Radiative Exchange Between Partially Specular Gray Surfaces


    6.1  Introduction


    6.2  Specular View Factors


    6.3  Enclosures with Partially Specular Surfaces


    6.4  Electrical Network Analogy


    6.5  Radiation Shields


    6.6  Semitransparent Sheets (Windows)


    6.7  Solution of the Governing Integral Equation


    6.8  Concluding Remarks



7  Radiative Exchange Between Nonideal Surfaces


    7.1  Introduction


    7.2  Radiative Exchange Between Nongray Surfaces


    7.3  Directionally Nonideal Surfaces


    7.4  Analysis for Arbitrary Surface Characteristics



8  The Monte Carlo Method for Surface Exchange


    8.1  Introduction


    8.2  Numerical Quadrature by Monte Carlo


    8.3  Heat Transfer Relations for Radiative Exchange Between Surfaces


    8.4  Random Number Relations for Surface Exchange


    8.5  Surface Description


    8.6  Ray Tracing


    8.7  Efficiency Considerations



9  Surface Radiative Exchange in the Presence of Conduction and Convection


    9.1  Introduction


    9.2  Conduction and Surface Radiation-Fins


    9.3  Convection and Surface Radiation



10  The Radiative Transfer Equation in Participating Media (RTE)


    10.1  Introduction


    10.2  Attenuation by Absorption and Scattering


    10.3  Augmentation by Emission and Scattering


    10.4  The Radiative Transfer Equation


    10.5  Formal Solution to the Radiative Transfer Equation


    10.6  Boundary Conditions for the Radiative Transfer Equation


    10.7  Radiation Energy Density


    10.8  Radiative Heat Flux


    10.9  Divergence of the Radiative Heat Flux


    10.10  Integral Formulation of the Radiative Transfer Equation


    10.11  Overall Energy Conservation


    10.12  Solution Methods for the Radiative Transfer Equation



11  Radiative Properties of Molecular Gases


    11.1  Fundamental Principles


    11.2  Emission and Absorption Probabilities


    11.3  Atomic and Molecular Spectra


    11.4  Line Radiation


    11.5  Nonequilibrium Radiation


    11.6  High-Resolution Spectroscopic Databases


    11.7  Spectral Models for Radiative Transfer Calculations


    11.8  Narrow Band Models


    11.9  Narrow Band k-Distributions


    11.10  Wide Band Models


    11.11  Total Emissivity and Mean Absorption Coefficient


    11.12  Experimental Methods



12  Radiative Properties of Particulate Media


    12.1  Introduction


    12.2  Absorption and Scattering from a Single Sphere


    12.3  Radiative Properties of a Particle Cloud


    12.4  Radiative Properties of Small Spheres (Rayleigh Scattering)


    12.5  Rayleigh-Gans Scattering


    12.6  Anomalous Diffraction


    12.7  Radiative Properties of Large Spheres


    12.8  Absorption and Scattering by Long Cylinders


    12.9  Approximate Scattering Phase Functions


    12.10  Radiative Properties of Irregular Particles and Aggregates


    12.11  Radiative Properties of Combustion Particles


    12.12  Experimental Determination of Radiative Properties of Particles



13  Radiative Properties of Semitransparent Media


    13.1  Introduction


    13.2  Absorption by Semitransparent Solids


    13.3  Absorption by Semitransparent Liquids


    13.4  Radiative Properties of Porous Solids


    13.5  Experimental Methods



14  Exact Solutions for One-Dimensional Gray Media


    14.1  Introduction


    14.2  General Formulation for a Plane-Parallel Medium


    14.3  Plane Layer of a Nonscattering Medium


    14.4  Plane Layer of a Scattering Medium


    14.5  Radiative Transfer in Spherical Media


    14.6  Radiative Transfer in Cylindrical Media


    14.7  Numerical Solution of the Governing Integral Equations



15  Approximate Solution Methods for One-Dimensional Media


    15.1  The Optically Thin Approximation


    15.2  The Optically Thick Approximation (Diffusion Approximation)


    15.3  The Schuster-Schwarzschild Approximation


    15.4  The Milne-Eddington Approximation (Moment Method)


    15.5  The Exponential Kernel Approximation



16  The Method of Spherical Harmonics (PN-Approximation)


    16.1  Introduction


    16.2  General Formulation of the PN-Approximation


    16.3  The PN-Approximation for a One-Dimensional Slab


    16.4  Boundary Conditions for the PN-Method


    16.5  The P1-Approximation


    16.6  P3- and Higher-Order Approximations


    16.7  Simplified PN-Approximation


    16.8  The Modified Differential Approximation


    16.9  Comparison of Methods



17  The Method of Discrete Ordinates (SN-Approximation)


    17.1  Introduction


    17.2  General Relations


    17.3  The One-Dimensional Slab


    17.4  One-Dimensional Concentric Spheres and Cylinders


    17.5  Multidimensional Problems


    17.6  The Finite Volume Method


    17.7  The Modified Discrete Ordinates Method


    17.8  Even-Parity Formulation


    17.9  Other Related Methods


    17.10  Concluding Remarks



18  The Zonal Method


    18.1  Introduction


    18.2  Surface Exchange - No Participating Medium


    18.3  Radiative Exchange in Gray Absorbing/Emitting Media


    18.4  Radiative Exchange in Gray Media with Isotropic Scattering


    18.5  Radiative Exchange through a Nongray Medium


    18.6  Determination of Direct Exchange Areas



19  Collimated Irradiation and Transient Phenomena


    19.1  Introduction


    19.2  Reduction of the Problem


    19.3  The Modified P1-Approximation with Collimated Irradiation


    19.4  Short-Pulsed Collimated Irradiation with Transient Effects



20  Solution Methods for Nongray Extinction Coefficients


    20.1  Introduction


    20.2  The Mean Beam Length Method


    20.3  Semigray Approximations


    20.4  The Stepwise-Gray Model (Box Model)


    20.5  General Band Model Formulation


    20.6  The Weighted-Sum-of- Gray-Gases (WSGG) Model


    20.7  k-Distribution Models


    20.8  The Full Spectrum k-Distribution (FSK) Method for Homogeneous Media


    20.9  The Spectral-Line-Based Weighted Sum of Gray Gases (SLW)


    20.10  The FSK Method for Nonhomogeneous Media


    20.11  Evaluation of k-Distributions


    20.12  Higher Order k-Distribution Methods



21  The Monte Carlo Method for Participating Media


    21.1  Introduction


    21.2  Heat Transfer Relations for Participating Media


    21.3  Random Number Relations for Participating Media


    21.4  Treatment of Spectral Line Structure Effects


    21.5  Overall Energy Conservation


    21.6  Discrete Particle Fields


    21.7  Efficiency Considerations


    21.8  Backward Monte Carlo


    21.9  Direct Exchange Monte Carlo


    21.10  Example Problems



22  Radiation Combined with Conduction and Convection


    22.1  Introduction


    22.2  Combined Radiation and Conduction


    22.3  Melting and Solidification with Internal Radiation


    22.4  Combined Radiation and Convection in Boundary Layers


    22.5  Combined Radiation and Free Convection


    22.6  Combined Radiation and Convection in Internal Flow


    22.7  Combined Radiation and Combustion


    22.8  Interfacing Between Turbulent Flow Fields and Radiation


    22.9  Interaction of Radiation with Turbulence


    22.10  Radiation in Concentrating Solar Energy Systems



23  Inverse Radiative Heat Transfer


    23.1  Introduction


    23.2  Solution Methods


    23.3  Regularization


    23.4  Gradient-Based Optimization


    23.5  Metaheuristics


    23.6  Summary of Inverse Radiation Research



24  Nanoscale Radiative Transfer


    24.1  Introduction


    24.2  Coherence of Light


    24.3  Evanescent Waves


    24.4  Radiation Tunneling


    24.5  Surface Waves (Polaritons)


    24.6  Fluctuational Electrodynamics


    24.7  Heat Transfer Between Parallel Plates


    24.8  Experiments on Nanoscale Radiation



A  Constants and Conversion Factors


B  Tables for Radiative Properties of Opaque Surfaces


C  Blackbody Emissive Power Table


D  View Factor Catalogue


E  Exponential Integral Functions


F  Computer Codes