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Radiative Heat Transfer

Second Edition

Michael F. Modest

 The Pennsylvania State University

 Academic Press

  New York    San Francisco    London

To the m&m's of my life, Monika, Mara, and Michelle

Errata Sheet for the 2nd edition

[Errata Sheet for the 1st edition]


 

Contents

1 Fundamentals of Thermal Radiation

    1.1 Introduction

    1.2 The Nature of Thermal Radiation

    1.3 Basic Laws of Thermal Radiation

    1.4 Emissive Power

    1.5 Solid Angles

    1.6 Radiative Intensity

    1.7 Radiative Heat Flux

    1.8 Radiation Pressure

    1.9 Visible Radiation (Luminance)

    1.10 Introduction to Radiation Characteristics of Opaque Surfaces

    1.11 Introduction to Radiation Characteristics of Gases

    1.12 Introduction to Radiation Characteristics of Solids and Liquids

    1.13 Introduction to Radiation Characteristics of Particles

    1.14 Outline of Radiative Transport Theory

2 Radiative Property Predictions from Electromagnetic Wave Theory

    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 The Macroscopic Maxwell Equations

    2.3 Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Unbounded Media

    2.4 Polarization

    2.5 Reflection and Transmission

    2.6 Theories for Optical Constants

3 Radiative Properties of Real Surfaces

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Definitions

    3.3 Predictions from Electromagnetic Wave Theory

    3.4 Radiative Properties of Metals

    3.5 Radiative Properties of Nonconductors

    3.6 Effects of Surface Roughness

    3.7 Effects of Surface Damage and Oxide Films

    3.8 Radiative Properties of Semitransparent Sheets

    3.9 Special Surfaces

    3.10 Experimental Methods

4 View Factors

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Definition of View Factors

    4.3 Methods for the Evaluation of View Factors

    4.4 Area Integration

    4.5 Contour Integration

    4.6 View Factor Algebra

    4.7 The Crossed-Strings Method

    4.8 The Inside-Sphere Method

    4.9 The Unit Sphere Method

5 Radiative Exchange Between Gray, Diffuse Surfaces

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Radiative Exchange between Black Surfaces

    5.3 Radiative Exchange Between Gray, Diffuse Surfaces

    5.4 Electrical Network Analogy

    5.5 Solution Methods for the Governing Integral Equations

6 Radiative Exchange Between Partially-Specular Gray Surfaces

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Specular View Factors

    6.3 Enclosures With Partially-Specular Surfaces

    6.4 Electrical Network Analogy

    6.5 Radiation Shields

    6.6 Semitransparent Sheets (Windows)

    6.7 Solution of the Governing Integral Equation

    6.8 Concluding Remarks

7 Radiative Exchange Between Nonideal Surfaces

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Radiative Exchange between Nongray Surfaces

    7.3 Directionally Nonideal Surfaces

    7.4 Analysis for Arbitrary Surface Characteristics

8 Surface Radiative Exchange in the Presence of Conduction and Convection

    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Conduction and Surface Radiation-Fins

    8.3 Convection and Surface Radiation

9 The Equation of Radiative Transfer in Participating Media

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Radiative Intensity in Vacuum

    9.3 Attenuation by Absorption and Scattering

    9.4 Augmentation by Emission and Scattering

    9.5 The Equation of Transfer

    9.6 Formal Solution to the Equation of Transfer

    9.7 Boundary Conditions for the Equation of Transfer

    9.8 Radiation Energy Density

    9.9 Radiative Heat Flux

    9.10 Divergence of the Radiative Heat Flux

    9.11 Overall Energy Conservation

    9.12 Solution Methods for the Equation of Transfer

10 Radiative Properties of Molecular Gases

    10.1 Fundamental Principles

    10.2 Emission and Absorption Probabilities

    10.3 Atomic and Molecular Spectra

    10.4 Line Radiation

    10.5 Spectral Models For Radiative Transfer Calculations

    10.6 Narrow Band Models

    10.7 Correlated k-Distributions

    10.8 Wide Band Models

    10.9 Total Emissivity and Mean Absorption Coefficient

    10.10 Experimental Methods

11 Radiative Properties of Particulate Media

    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Absorption and Scattering from a Single Sphere

    11.3 Radiative Properties of a Particle Cloud

    11.4 Radiative Properties of Small Spheres (Rayleigh Scattering)

    11.5 Rayleigh-Gans Scattering

    11.6 Anomalous Diffraction

    11.7 Radiative Properties of Large Spheres

    11.8 Absorption and Scattering by Long Cylinders

    11.9 Approximate Scattering Phase Functions

    11.10 Experimental Determination of Radiative Properties of Particles

    11.11 Radiation Properties of Combustion Particles

12 Radiative Properties of Semitransparent Media

    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Absorption by Semitransparent Solids

    12.3 Absorption by Semitransparent Liquids

    12.4 Experimental Methods

13 Exact Solutions For One-Dimensional Gray Media

    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 General Formulation for a Plane-Parallel Medium

    13.3 Radiative Equilibrium of a Nonscattering Medium

    13.4 Radiative Equilibrium of a Scattering Medium

    13.5 Plane Medium with Specified Temperature Field

    13.6 Radiative Transfer in Spherical Media

    13.7 Radiative Transfer in Cylindrical Media

    13.8 Numerical Solution of the Governing Integral Equations

14 Approximate Solution Methods for One-Dimensional Media

    14.1 The Optically Thin Approximation

    14.2 The Optically Thick Approximation (Diffusion Approximation)

    14.3 The Schuster-Schwarzschild Approximation

    14.4 The Milne-Eddington Approximation (Moment Method)

    14.5 The Exponential Kernel Approximation

15 The Method of Spherical Harmonics (PN-Approximation)

    15.1 Introduction

    15.2 Development of the General PN-Approximation

    15.3 Boundary Conditions for the PN-Method

    15.4 The P1-Approximation

    15.5 P3- and Higher-Order Approximations

    15.6 Enhancements to the P1-Approximation

16 The Method of Discrete Ordinates (SN-Approximation)

    16.1 Introduction

    16.2 General Relations

    16.3 The One-Dimensional Slab

    16.4 One-Dimensional Concentric Spheres and Cylinders

    16.5 Multidimensional Problems

    16.6 The Finite Volume Method

    16.7 Other Related Methods

    16.8 Concluding Remarks

17 The Zonal Method

    17.1 Introduction

    17.2 Surface Exchange - No Participating Medium

    17.3 Radiative Exchange in Gray Absorbing/Emitting Media

    17.4 Radiative Exchange in Gray Media with Isotropic Scattering

    17.5 Radiative Exchange through a Nongray Medium

    17.6 Determination of Direct Exchange Areas

18 The Treatment of Collimated Irradiation

    18.1 Introduction

    18.2 Reduction of the Problem

    18.3 The Modified P1-Approximation with Collimated Irradiation

    18.4 Short-Pulsed Collimated Irradiation With Transient Effects

19 The Treatment of Nongray Extinction Coefficients

    19.1 Introduction

    19.2 The Mean Beam Length Method

    19.3 Semigray Approximations

    19.4 The Stepwise-Gray Model (Box Model)

    19.5 General Band Model Formulation

    19.6 The Weighted-Sum-of-Gray-Gases (WSGG) Model

    19.7 k-Distribution Models

    19.8 The Full-Spectrum k-Distribution (FSK) Method

20 The Monte Carlo Method for Thermal Radiation

    20.1 Introduction

    20.2 Numerical Quadrature by Monte Carlo

    20.3 Heat Transfer Relations for Radiative Exchange between Surfaces

    20.4 Random Number Relations for Surface Exchange

    20.5 Surface Description

    20.6 Ray Tracing

    20.7 Heat Transfer Relations for Participating Media

    20.8 Random Number Relations for Participating Media

    20.9 Overall Energy Conservation

    20.10 Efficiency Considerations

    20.11 Backward Monte Carlo

    20.12 Example Problems

21 Radiation Combined With Conduction and Convection

    21.1 Introduction

    21.2 Combined Radiation and Conduction

    21.3 Melting and Solidification with Internal Radiation

    21.4 Combined Radiation and Convection in Boundary Layers

    21.5 Combined Radiation and Free Convection

    21.6 Combined Radiation and Convection in Internal Flow

    21.7 Combined Radiation and Combustion

    21.8 Interfacing Between Turbulent Flow Fields and Radiation

    21.9 Interaction of Radiation with Turbulence

22 Inverse Radiative Heat Transfer

    22.1 Introduction

    22.2 Solution Methods

    22.3 The Levenberg-Marquardt Method

    22.4 The Conjugate Gradient Method

    22.5 Inverse Surface Radiation

    22.6 Inverse Radiation in Participating Media

A Constants and Conversion Factors

B Tables for Radiative Properties of Opaque Surfaces

C Blackbody Emissive Power Table

D View Factor Catalogue

E Exponential Integral Functions

F Computer Codes